The following individuals have expressed criticism of police interview and interrogation techniques, and in some instances, have specifically criticized The Reid Technique:

Gudjonsson was a police officer from Iceland who published a book, The Psychology of Interrogations, Confessions and Testimony, 1992, John Wiley and Sons. The text is generally critical of police interrogations. In particular, Gudjonsson believes that the use of trickery and deceit during an interrogation is unethical and that police are not adequately trained to identify individuals who are unusually susceptible to persuasive techniques such as those of lower intelligence or suffering from a mental illness. In 2002 Prof. Gudjonsson published a new book called The Psychology of Interrogations & Confessions: A Handbook.

> The Home page for Prof. Gudjonsson


Dr. Kassin is a professor of psychology at Williams College in Massachusetts. Kassin has published a number of laboratory-based studies which investigate such interrogation issues as "pragmatic implication", "minimization and maximization techniques" and the phenomenon of coerced internalized confessions.

> The Home page for Dr. Kassin

Leo is an Assistant Professor at the University of California, Irvine, in both the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior and the Department of Criminology, Law and Society. He is also a former student of Richard Ofshe. Leo has criticized the use of trickery and deceit during an interrogation and believes that Miranda warnings should be issued even in non-custodial interviews.

> The Home page for Dr. Leo

Dr. Ofshe is a sociology professor at the University of California, Berkeley. His early interests were in cult groups and their methods of "brain-washing." He has been studying criminal interrogation for ten years. As of 4/19/99 Ofshe has testified 110 times on police interrogations as an expert witness in at least 23 states.

> The Home page for Dr. Ofshe